With the largest vaccination program in human history well underway, what are drug manufacturers charging for their COVID-19 vaccines?

Based on actual procurement contracts and agreements collated by UNICEF, the reported vaccine price-per-dose ranges between $2.19 and $44.

Drug makers have implemented a number of strategies including early-procurement, bulk-purchasing and tiering prices based on wealth-of-nations. Others, including US-based Johnson & Johnson and the UK's AstraZeneca (in partnership with Oxford), have pledged to sell their vaccines at a price that covers cost. AstraZeneca currently looks set to be the cheapest per dose.

Prices aren't fixed, though. As soon as more vaccines are approved, competition may well push prices lower.

And with so much at stake, there have been calls for the 'know-how' behind new vaccines to be pooled and shared so that other firms can manufacture doses for their own markets. India and South Africa had approached the World Trade Organization in October, calling on it to waive parts of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement).

The proposal was vehemently opposed and blocked by wealthy nations like the United States and Britain as well as the European Union, who say that any ban on COVID vaccine patents would stifle innovation.