What are drug makers charging for COVID-19 vaccines?

With the largest vaccination program in human history underway, what are pharmaceutical companies charging for their COVID-19 vaccines?

Drug makers don't want to be perceived as profiteering from a global crisis, especially after receiving significant outside funding. In total, governments and non-profit organizations have poured over $10 billion into projects to create and test these vaccines. Around $3.5 billion has come from pharma companies' own investments.

US-based Johnson & Johnson and the UK's AstraZeneca (in partnership with Oxford) have both pledged to sell their vaccines at a price that covers cost. AstraZeneca currently looks set to be the cheapest at $4 per dose. Moderna is pricing theirs much higher, at up to $37 per dose.

Prices aren't fixed, though. AstraZeneca's promise to keep prices low extends only for the 'duration of the pandemic'. It could start charging higher prices as early as next year, depending on the path of the disease. Several other companies are tiering prices based on wealth of nations. And, as soon as more vaccines are approved, competition may well push prices lower.

So will drug companies make profits? Governments and multilateral organizations have already pledged to buy billions of doses at set prices. Over $10.3 billion worth of doses have already been pre-ordered as for December this year.